and their medieval architectonic layout has been retained till today:
With variations, they possess the following features:
Many European localities date their foundation to their reception of a town charter, even though they had existed as a settlement beforehand. Cities with German city rights often had similar layouts. Somewhat isolated was part of the city containing the residence and castle of the regional ruler, along with a cathedral. The city proper was centered around a market square which featured a church for wealthy merchants and artisans. Streets led out from the market in a planned grid system or concentric circles in which less wealthy citizens lived; riverfront sections of a city were designed with semicircles. The perimeter of the city was guarded by defensive walls, gates, and moats. If the city had already existed as a settlement, pre-existing defenses were sometimes incorporated into the fortifications. Cities whose layouts depict this type of urban planning include Wroc³aw, Kraków, Vienna, Brno, and Prague.