Zamość Synagogue, (Polish: Synagoga Dawna w Zamościu), was built between 1610 and 1618 Zamość in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The synagogue had functioned as a place of worship until World War II, when the Nazis turned the interior into a carpenters’ workshop. Recently restored to the Polish Jewish community, the building is going to be renovated and rearranged in order to serve the current citizens of Zamość.
The interior, c.1930.
The exterior before the fortress style parapet was added.
A large menorah next to the Aron Kodesh.
The synagogue in 2006, before its 2010 restoration.
Sejny is about 25 miles from Augustow. Sejny is located only a few miles from Lithuania and Belarus. The synagogue, built around 1850, today is used as a concert hall. The former Sejny synagogue is called the White Synagogue in Sejny.
The large, Neo-baroque style building on Pilsudskiego Street was erected in the 1860s, replacing an older building. It was used by the Nazis as a fire station, the interior was gutted and all furnishings were destroyed. It was restored - with a plain, modern interior - in 1987 and now serves as a cultural center, theater and museum.
Called the Borderland Foundation, (Fundacja Pogranicze,) the foundation and its cultural ceenter are dedicated to the cultures of the region, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Jewish, Ukrainian and Russian. The Foundation was the Polish publisher of Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland by Jan T. Gross. A Klezmer band is based at the cultural center.
Synagogue in Sejny (Talmudic House)
The nineteenth century yeshiva building also survives, and is also used by the Borderland Foundation.
During the Polish Defensive War of 1939 the town was first captured by the Soviet Union on September 24, 1939. Sejny was severely pillaged and then on October 13, 1939 transferred to Nazi Germany. It remained occupied by the Germans for the rest of World War II, which resulted in almost complete destruction of the local Jewish community in the gas chambers of the German extermination camps. On August 31, 1944 the town was again captured by the Red Army and soon afterwards it was delivered to the new Soviet-controlled communist authorities of Poland.
Jews obtained permission to build a new synagogue from Hieronim Andrzej Lubomirski already in 1686, but it was erected only in 1705-1712. The author of the design and the builder was Italian architect Jan Chrzciciel Belotti.
The impressive, east-oriented building in the renaissance-baroque style, initially meant for defense, was erected on a rectangular floor plan, with dimensions 20 by 30 metres, covered with a hipped roof. Initially, the hall had nine naves with a cross vault, supported with four pillars, with the bimah in the middle. In the first half of the 19th century, the building was comprehensively renovated, the roof was rebuilt to a gable roof.
Initially, in the eastern part of the building there was the main hall of prayer, covered with a baroque ceiling, based on four massive pillars, with the bimah between them. There was a vestibule attached to the hall, above which there was a women’s gallery. The internal walls of the building, as well as ceilings and pillars were covered with sophisticated and colorful polychromes and stucco work.
In 1939, Germans stationing in the city used it as a stable and later as a warehouse. In 1944, the synagogue was set on fire, as a result of which the ceiling collapsed, the walls crumbled and the elements supporting the attic were destroyed. After the liberation, the synagogue was in the state of collapse and was facing demolition. In 1948, the City Authorities planned to demolish the building and reuse the bricks for construction purposes, but due to its monumental value, the Congregation of Mosaic Denomination disapproved of this course of action.
Eventually in the years 1954-1965, the synagogue was renovated and a new storey was added. As a result, the initial architectural structure was modified to a large degree, and the original look was lost. Until the modern day, there is a cavity which used to house the The Torah ark. In the years 1954-65 the former synagogue became the headquarters of the Art Exhibitions Bureau, as well as creative work center run by the Association of Polish Artists and the seat of the Association of the Polish Artists, Painters and Graphic Designers. Currently it houses offices of the Art Exhibitions Bureau. On 24 January 1978, the synagogue was included in the national register of monuments under the no.1021.
Synagogue in Leszno (31 Narutowicza Street) was built between 1796 and 1799 at the place of the former wooden synagogue from 1626. The decision to build the synagogue was made during the special meeting of members of the Jewish Community in 1792. The consecration ceremony took place on 02.03.1799. A bulk was added to the tower of the synagogue in 1905, according to the design made by two architects from Wroclaw - Richard and Paul Ehrlich. The structure of the interior of the synagogue was also changed, while a one-level empora for women was added in the main prayer chamber. The empora encircled the inside of the synagogue from the north, west and south. The synagogue in Leszno was destroyed by the Germans during the Second World War. After the war, a public bath was established in the abandoned building.
A part of the tower topped with an onion dome was knocked down in 1956. The reasons for doing this remain unknown. In the following years the building was converted into a storehouse (the main chamber of prayer was divided by a ferroconcrete ceiling).
Abandoned and devastated building was taken over by Muzeum Okręgowe w Lesznie (District Museum in Leszno) in 1993. After a renovation, which lasted several years, an art gallery and a permanent exhibition of judaica were opened.
The Kielce Synagogue was a synagogue in Kielce, Poland. Designed by Stanisław Szpakowski, it was built between 1901 and 1903 on the grounds donated by Mojżesz Pfefer. The temple was desecrated by the Nazis during World War II, and turned into a prison and storage facility for stolen Jewish property. Under the communists the building was abandoned from 1945 to 1951. The adjoining mikvah and Rabbi's home were destroyed in the 1970s. The structure has been renovated and some architectural elements altered. Today it serves as a State Archive.
The Przemyśl New Synagogue, also known as the Scheinbach Synagogue was an orthodox synagogue in Przemyśl, Poland. Since World War II, the synagogue, which is still standing, has been used as the Ignacy Krasicki Przemyśl Public Library.[
History and architecture
Construction on the began in 1910 and was completed in 1918 after delays caused by the First World War. The spacious, high-ceilinged building survives, although Communist-period renovations stripped so much of the exterior detail that it presents an appearance in marked contrast to the building shown in old photographs.
The synagogue is a free-standing building in a blend of Rundbogenstil and Classical styles with eclectic decoration. It was designed by architect Stanisław Majerski. The elaborate interior decoration once featured Biblical scenes and scenes of Eretz Israel painted on the walls and ceiling. In its incarnation as a public library, the building has a sedate and functional interior with bookshelves and walls painted white. The synagogue also had a notable set of stained glass windows. The windows and paintings were by a Jewish Przemyśl artist named Adolf Bienenstock, a graduate of the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts. Kraków, like Przemyśl, was then part of Austrian Galicia (also known as Austrian Poland). Bienenstock, who taught art at the Przemyśl Gymnasium, had studied under the notable Polish artist Józef Mehoffer. The interior reflects the influence of the Young Poland movement of which Mehoffer was part. Young Poland was the Polish version of the jugendstil (art nouveau) movement.
The synagogue was used as a stable by the German army during World War II, then used as a textile factory under the Communist post-War government before being turned into a library in the 1960s.
Synagoga w Wodzisławiu Śląskim – synagoga znajdująca się w Wodzisławiu Śląskim przy obecnej ulicy Targowej.
Synagoga została zbudowana w 1826 roku na miejscu starej synagogi, która spłonęła podczas pożaru w 1822 roku. W okresie międzywojennym zamknięta ze względu na brak w mieście społeczności żydowskiej.
W 1938 roku budynek synagogi zakupili przedstawiciele Związku Powstańców Śląskich, którzy przebudowali go na Dom Powstańca. Podczas II wojny światowej urządzono tu kino Czar wbrew wcześniejszej umowie, która zakładała poszanowanie tego budynku jako byłego miejsca kultu. Obecnie w budynku znajduje się sklep z kosmetykami.
Usytuowana w centrum starego miasta, budynek na początku minionego wieku wolno stojący, tynkowany, dawniej dwukondygnacyjny, zwieńczony dachem czterospadowym orientowany na planie litery T z ozdobną elewacją frontową zdobioną w części środkowej jednoosiowym ryzalitem wystającym poza lico dachu, z dużym prostokątnym oknem zamkniętym łukowato, nad nim okrągły – oculus z gwiazdą Dawida. Do wnętrza wiodły trzy wejścia łukowe w formie romańskich portali flankowane kolumnami. Wejścia boczne zdobione były nad portalami gwiazdami Dawida. Prawdopodobnie w części frontowej mieścił się przedsionek, a nad nim tzw. babiniec. Od 1938 roku przebudowana z częściowym zachowaniem pierwotnej bryły.
A synagogue existed in Swidnica in 1285 and a cemetery also served neighboring communities, its oldest gravestone dating from 1289. At the end of 1301 a dispute arose between a Christian butcher and the Jews; this was settled in early 1302 when six Jews were given limited slaughtering rights. In 1328 Duke Bolko ii of Schweidnitz confirmed the liberal privileges granted by his grandfather in 1295, including the right to trade and to lend money without restriction, thus protecting the moneylending Jews after they were excluded from other trades by the guilds. A commission was constituted of four Jewish community leaders ("der Viere") which possessed wide powers; among other accomplishments, it foiled the town's attempt to open a brothel on the Jews' street.
And here one of the few still existing synagogues in Poland and in Europe (as a whole, because all over Europe synagogues were burnt, blown up, used as other buildings or just disappeared after being demolished)
The synagogue of Konin was built in the mid 1820 in an oriental-gothic style. This is today the library of the town.
Synagogue – Mickiewicza Street (former Bóżnicza Street), Konin. Devastated and destroyed during World War II, it was converted into warehouses. The building was renovated in 1984-1988. Until 2008, the Regional Library operated in it. At present, the building has been handed over to the Jewish community.
The same synagogue before the war, when there was still a Jewish community
The Great Synagogue in Piotrków Trybunalski, (Polish: Wielka Synagoga w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim), was built between 1791-1793 and designed by David Friedlander. The synagogue was devastated by Nazis during the World War II. After the war, the building was renovated and it now serves as a library.
Although plundered during World War II, it is the best preserved synagogue in the Łódź region and one of the best preserved in Poland.
Kazimierz Stronczynski who in 1844-55 led the first official inventory of important buildings in Poland, titled A General View of the Nature of Ancient Monuments in the Kingdom of Poland, describes the Great Synagogue of Piotrków as one of Poland's architecturally notable buildings.
On the front wall there is a commemorative plaque in Polish, Hebrew, Yiddish, and English, which reads:
"This building, once 'The Great Synagogue,' and this plaque, sanctify the memory of Piotrkow Jews murdered by the Nazis during 1939 - 1945. Remembrance and restoration project in memory of the Holocaust martyrs and the departed of our Jewish community and in memory of the Great Tzadik Rabbi Dr. Hayim David Bernard."
The interior of the synagogue
In 2012 the synagogue was renovated. The façade was repainted according to its prior look before the war.
The Tykocin Synagogue is an historic synagogue building in Tykocin, Poland. The synagogue, in mannerist-early Baroque style, was built in 1642.
The synagogue was thoroughly restored in the late 1970s. The historic wall paintings, most of which are decorative texts of Hebrew prayers, were restored. The elaborate, decorative ceiling was not reconstructed although some idea of the style can be gleaned from the design of the Torah Ark.
A former Beit Medrash (study and prayer hall) located across the street has been restored and is in use as a city museum.
Although no Jews now live in Tykocin and the town has no other tourist attractions, 40,000 tourists a year come to see the old synagogue, which towers over the remote village "in lonely and unexpected splendor." The tourism has generated economic activity, including a cafe serving "Jewish-style" food and a bed-and-breakfast.
The impressive synagogue that has survived until today was built in 1642 in the place of a wooden temple from the 15th c, in the center of the Jewish district – Kaczorowo. It is a nine-section temple with a chapel-like bimah. This is the type that developed at the beginning of the 17th century in the south-east part of the Commonwealth.
It is assumed that the design of the Tykocin synagogue could be based on the fortified Pińsk synagogue, built in 1640. The massive, stone building in the late-Renaissance-Baroque style was based on a rectangular ground plan, size: 18 x 18 m. Initially, the synagogue had a concave roof with an attic, but it burnt down in the 18th c. and was replaced with a mansard roof, in the Baroque style.
From three sides the building is adjacent to one-storey extensions, which housed two women's galleries and a vestibule, which was the seat of the cheder as well as meeting room for the court and kehilla. The rectangular prayer hall is located lower than the vestibule. The two-storey bimah, located in the centre, is surrounded by four pillars that converge, becoming a support for the ceiling. On the east wall there is a stone frame of the Torah ark, while the remaining walls contained polychromies with Hebrew inscriptions as well as images of plants and animals.
In the 18th c., a low tower was added to the north-west corner of the building, which was a rabbinical prison; it increased the defensive potential of the synagogue. In the second half of the 18th c., Izabela Branicka sponsored the construction of a trade hall in the square in front of the temple in which Jewish shops and craftsmen workshops operated. Today only their foundation can still be seen.
During the occupation the Germans partially devastated the synagogue, using it as a warehouse; they also stole some of the rich furnishings, e.g. the famous curtains. After the war, a fertilizers warehouse was located in the building. In 1965, part of the building was destroyed in a fire, however it was renovated in the 1970s. In 1977, the Provincial Conservator of Monuments in Białystok undertook comprehensive restoration work; afterwards, the building was commissioned to the District Museum in Tykocin, which is a branch of the Białystok Museum. It presents a rich collection of Jewish memorabilia and other items connected with the city history.
The museum organizes temporary exhibitions and staged observation of Jewish holidays, as well as concerts. In the low tower an interior of a typical Jewish house has been reconstructed, with the dining room prepared for Passover.
The Nożyk Synagogue (Polish: Synagoga Nożyków) is the only surviving prewar Jewish house of prayer in Warsaw, Poland. It was built in 1898-1902 and was restored after World War II. It is still operational and currently houses the Warsaw Jewish Commune, as well as other Jewish organizations. Contents
1 History 2 Restoration 3 Notes 4 See also 5 External links
Before World War II the Jewish community of Warsaw, one of the largest Jewish communities in the world at that time, had over 400 houses of prayer at its disposal. However, at the end of 19th century only two of them were separate structures, while the rest were smaller chapels attached to schools, hospitals or private homes.
The earliest Round Synagogue in the borough of Praga served the local community since 1839, while the Great Synagogue (erected in 1878) was built for the reformed community. Soon afterwards a need arose to build a temple also for the orthodox Jewry. Between 1898 and 1902 Zalman Nożyk, a renowned Warsaw merchant, and his wife Ryfka financed such temple at Twarda street, next to the neighbourhood of Grzybów [pl] and Plac Grzybowski.
The building was designed by a famous Warsaw architect, Karol Kozłowski, author of the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra Hall. The façade is neo-romanticist, with notable neo-Byzantine elements. The building itself is rectangular, with the internal chamber divided into three aisles.
The synagogue was officially opened to the public on May 26, 1902. In 1914 the founders donated it to the Warsaw Jewish Commune, in exchange for yearly prayers in their intention. In 1923 the building was refurbished by Maurycy Grodzieński, who also designed a semi-circular choir that was attached to the eastern wall of the temple. In September 1939 the synagogue was damaged during an air raid. During World War II the area was part of the Small Ghetto and shared its fate during the Ghetto Uprising and then the liquidation of the Jewish community of Warsaw by the Nazis. After 1941 the Germans used the building as stables and a depot. Restoration After the war the demolished building was partially restored and returned to the Warsaw Jewish Commune, but the reconstruction did not start. It was completely rebuilt between 1977 and 1983 (officially opened April 18, 1983). It was also then that a new wing was added to the eastern wall, currently housing the seat of the commune, as well as several other Jewish organizations. Currently it is in use daily as both a place of worship as well as a place of gathering.